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Geochemistry Services



D3 Geochemistry was founded and is directed by Dr. Drummond Earley III who has over 30 years of experience as a technical investigator, proposal writer, project manager and supervisor in the environmental, mining, and energy industries. Technical investigations include acid mine drainage prediction and characterization, mine and industrial water treatment, tailings and mine waste seepage and remedial investigations, water compatibility assessments, carbon sequestration analysis, and water quality and baseline environmental characterization studies. Other related specialties include mine and industrial waste characterization and management planning, mine and landfill closure and reclamation. His strong technical skills include design of water treatment systems, design of mine waste disposal facilities, geochemical modeling of pit lakes and mine waste seepage, groundwater flow and multicomponent reactive contaminant transport modeling, solid and liquid waste characterization, and aquifer characterization. He has applied geochemical and hydrologic modeling plus GIS analysis and block modeling techniques to the design of innovative and cost effective metals leaching methods and containment/treatment systems of mine water and waste. He has also used and reviewed groundwater, surface water and geochemical computer models and water quality data inputs for uncertainty analysis and risk assessment for water project feasibility studies.


Dr. Earley has presented expert witness testimony on the results of forensic analysis of seepage, surface water, groundwater, and soils for environmental investigations.  He has also conducted groundwater flow and multicomponent reactive transport modeling and risk assessment for prediction of post closure mine site water quality for mine permitting. In some capacities he has also conducted feasibility assessments of clean and industrial water management and treatment systems and ore processing systems. He also has experience in the relatively new application of geochemical computer simulation of deep reservoir carbon sequestration for the energy industry.  His work has supported NEPA and state mine permitting by designing, conducting and reviewing geochemical baseline studies, conducting water quality predictions and modeling and impact analysis, and conceptual design and modeling of water treatment systems to determine if water quality standards will be attained.


Dr. Earley has been the project manager and technical leader of over 50 research and mine waste and water quality projects. As a discipline leader he has trained and directed geochemist teams of up to 6 employees composed of staff from around the globe. As a project management and supervisor his style emphasizes leading by example and responsiveness to changing client needs, cost containment, consensus building among stakeholders, and empowerment of project team staff.


Dr. Earley has written numerous technical reports, published scientific papers and has a patented invention.  With over 15 years of business management and operations experience and facilitation of client-regulator, client-investor relationships plus six years of technical and business experience with multinational corporations at the regional and corporate levels he has strong business and communication skills.


  • In the Field

  • In the Lab

  • At the Office

  • When and Where it Matters Most!

In the Field


Geochemistry is a field science and we are highly competent field investigators. Any geochemical or environmental study has to begin with a solid understanding of the geological, microbiological, and hydrological characteristics of the site and subsurface of the earth.  Whether it is designing a sampling and analysis plan from scratch or reanalysis of existing data we have the broad knowledge of sites from different climates and characteristics to obtain and understand the baseline data for the site or investigation.  We also specialize in conducting studies to get critical data from difficult localities and designing a sampling and analysis plan that gets only the data you need with the chain of custody and quality assurance and control measures necessary to document the data.  D3 understands that safety is the number one priority of our clients and we have the experience and training to get the job done without incident.  We are MSHA and OSHA trained and compliant and can also assist you in developing sampling and analysis plans and associated health and safety plans for your monitoring activities.




At the Office


Over three decades of experience in the application of geochemical and reactive transport computer codes to develop predictive water quality and other geochemical and environmental models for clients at highly different sites.​  We have the theoretical training and practical knowledge of your site necessary to develop the right model for your needs.

Geochemical and Hydrologic Computer Modeling:

  • Mine Pit Lakes

  • Tailings and Mine Waste Seepage

  • Waste Cover Infiltration Modeling

  • Groundwater Plumes

  • Water Treatment and Discharge

  • Hydrometallurgy and Mineral Processing

  • Environmental Control Systems

  • Geothermal Systems

  • Carbon Sequestration


Some geochemists specialize in one or two modeling software systems, we have experience with them all plus reactive transport and heat transfer capabilities in groundwater and unsaturated media:  


  •          PHREEQC

  •          Geochemists Workbench

  •          MINTEQ/MINEQL

  •          EQ3/6

  •          WATEQ

  •          Hydrus 2D/3D

  •          TOUGH and Petrasim


We understand the theoretical and numerical basis of the models and have Ph.D level credibility.  We can create and calibrate a new model for your specific system or re-evaluate an existing model and make it more efficient or understandable.  In addition we have extensive experience in stochastic hydrogeochemical modeling for predicting the effects of climate variability on water management and treatment systems.


Geographic Information and Databases Systems:


We have extensive experience with using and validating environmental monitoring databases, geologic block models, and other georeferenced database systems.  D3's founder, Dr. Earley, pioneered the integration of water quality and geomaterial databases and block models with geochemical modeling analysis.  Our project experience also guides us in data evaluation and development of maps and other presentation documents that clearly tell the story without excessive CAD or other drafting related costs. 



In the Lab


Here are just a few of the many analyses and tests we support:

  • Acid Base Accounting

  • Kinetic Testing

  • Water Quality Analysis

  • Isotopic Analysis of Water and Soilds

  • Soil and Rock Chemical Analyses

  • Petrographic and Mineralogical Analyses

  • Leach Testing

  • Corrosion Testing

  • Hyperspectral Mineral Analysis

Our staff has designed and conducted hundreds of routine and specialized water, mineral, soil and rock analysis and testing programs.  No geochemistry, solid waste or water quality investigation can be conducted without defensible data.  We know the analytical and testing methods you need to attain your compliance or forensic investigation objectives. Furthermore, each country and state has guidance and regulations pertaining to analysis and testing and we know how to design a program that meets the laws of individual sites.  We understand that cost containment is also an objective of our clients and we have the experience to collect data that meets the requirements of the program without excess or redundant data collection and analysis costs.  

When and Where it Matters Most!


Our site experience is impressive and includes:

  • Low and High Temperature Geochemistry

  • Arid to Humid Climates

  • Wide Ranging Geologic and Physiographic Terrains

  • Surface and Underground Mines

  • Surface and Subsurface Hydrology

  • Across the US and Internationally

  • Operating and Closed Mines


D3 Geochemistry has field and project experience across the  Americas and is well versed in the differences in geologic terrains, climate conditions, and hydrologic systems.  We also have a comprehensive knowledge of State and Federal environmental regulations and International Standards in the Americas.


We thrive under pressure in any situation:


  • Compliance Reporting

  • Permit Applications and Hearings

    • Copper, Gold, and Lithium extraction projects​

    • Underground Injection Control permits

  • Expert Report Delivery

  • Expert Witness Testimony

  • Due Diligence Evaluation




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